Insulators and Conductors

2.1. germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, doping, P-type, N-type

This chapter explores the properties and applications of germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, and the processes of doping and categorization into P-type and N-type materials. These semiconductors are pivotal for their unique ability to conduct electricity under certain conditions, while acting as insulators in others, making them vital in the creation of diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits.